Andronov was born in Moscow. He started his art studies at a young age at the Intermediate Art School, later finishing his studies at both the Repin Institute (1948–1952) and the Surikov Institute (1952–1954).
Andronov began exhibiting his art in Moscow in 1951, where he became a member of Group of Eight, a political activist group. He specialized in thematic paintings, portraits and landscapes.
He painted in the Severe Style and his most well-known works include Builders of Kuibyshev Hydroelectric Power-Station (1957), A rigger (1959), The assembler (1958), and Raftsmen, (1961).
Later in his life, Andronov would find inspiration in Ferapontovo on the Little Volga where he worked in a summer studio. The paintings of this period show the dynamic, harsh, tense reality of the Russian north.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Andronov worked mainly as a muralist painter designing huge murals and mosaics, such as Man and printing (1978) for which he was awarded the USSR State Prize in 1979. Moving into the 1980s and 1990s, political motivations gave way to more spiritual impulses, shifting the themes of his paintings more toward religious cultural heritage and spiritual self- examination. Andronov continued painting up until the very last year of his life.